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This video is the first in a series of videos that go through the whole process of installing and configuring a router using Lubuntu. This series of videos goes through installing vSphere to run the virtual machine, and installing and configuration Lubuntu on that virtual machine. The process is simpler on different dedicated hardware or different virtual solutions.
Download the PDF handout
For this series VMWare vSphere Hypervisor will be used. This software hosts virtual machines and is free from VMware, however it does require a dedicated computer to run the software on. If you do not have a dedicated computer, you can try other virtual machines. If you have Windows 8 you can run Hyper-V. VMware also has VMware workstation however this is commercial software. There is other free virtualization software that is available, the important consideration is that the virtualization solution that you choose supports the number of network cards that you require. For this virtual rotuer, 10 network cards are used.
In this case Lunbutu 12.10 was used. You could also use other distributions of Linux. Depending on which distribution you use, the process should be simpler. In some cases the network setup may be different, for example Red Hat uses different configuration files. Lubuntu was chosen as it comes with a lightweight desktop. The server version of Ubuntu does not come with a desktop, although it can be installed if you want it. If you are happy to only use the command prompt, Ubuntu server may be a better choice for you.
Designed for the home lab
This router is designed to provide a bridge between a virtual machine and the internet. When set up correctly, virtual networks will be able to be created. These virtual networks are isolated from the other networks and thus you can use services like DHCP without affecting other networks. Since multiple networks are supported, you can configure virtual networks, for example you can have a New York, LA and London network. If you are performing Active Directory installs, you can configure these networks to have their own Domain Controllers on them and configure sites for these networks. The router also supports Terdo which means that IPv6 packets are transferred to the internet using IPv4. This means that your virtual machine will be able to access the internet using IPv6 even if your ISP and home router do not support IPv6.
This video looks at installing the free vSphere Hypervisor 5.1 from VMWare. The hypervisor requires a dedicated computer to run on. Once installed you can run virtual machines on the vSphere hypervisor and control these virtual machines from remote. For example run Windows and Linux computer in a virtual machine. Using a Hypervisor gives better performance than if the virtualization solution was to be run on top of an existing operating system.
Download the PDF handout
vSphere Hypervisor Requirements
The main requirement for vSphere is with the CPU. AMD CPU need to support NX (Never eXecute) and Intel needs to support XD (eXecute Disable). Both CPU’s need to support LAHF (Load AH from Flags) and SAHF (Store AH into Flags). You can download the following tool from VMWare to test a CPU to see if it supports these features.
The Bios also needs to be configured to allow virtualization. If either the CPU does not support the required features or virtualization is not enabled, you will receive and error message during the install. The install will still be allowed to continue, however before vSphere can be used on that system, the problem needs to be corrected either by changing the configuration in the Bios or replacing the CPU.
Demonstration installing vSphere Hypervisor
1) The vSphere Hypervisor and client software to administrator vSphere need to be download from the VMWare web site. http://www.vmware.com/ From the main page, select the link Trial and Free Products. The product that I want to download is found in the section “Download Free products”. Select the link “vSphere Hypervisor 5 (64bit)”.
2) Before you can download any software, you first need to register on the web site. Registration is free and also the download is free.
3) Once logged in, take note on the vSphere Hypervisor page for the license key. This will need to be entered in later on when you install the software.
4) The two downloads that will be downloaded in this case are “VMWare vSphere Hypervisor 5.1 Update 1 binaries” and “VMware vSphere client 5.1 Update 1”. There may be a newer version of this software available when you download it yourself. You should always download the newest version.
5) The vSphere Hypervisor is in ISO format which most burning software should be able to burn to an optical disc. In this case I will use a USB Key to perform the install. In order to do this, I will run software from http://pendrivelinux.com From the main page select the option Universal USB Installer. On the download page there will be a link to download the software.
6) Once the software is run, from the pull down list select the option “Unlisted Linux ISO”. Once selected, it is just a matter of browsing to the ISO file and then selecting the USB key that you want to copy of the ISO to.
7) Once the USB key has been configured, it needs to be put in the computer that you want to perform the install on.
8) In this BIOS, if F12 is pressed during boot up, the menu will appear that the administrator can use to select the boot device.
9) The first screen of the installer will ask if you want to boot the installer or the local disk. This option is available in case you leave the media in the drive after that install. This gives you the chance to boot from the local drive rather than start the vSphere installer.
10) The welcome screen will give you a link to the compatibility guide http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility You should check you hardware to see if it is compatible with VMWare. This is particular important if you use fiber cards or other hardware in the vSphere server.
11) The next screen will ask you to accept the license agreement. It is just a matter of pressing F11 on this screen.
12) The next screen will show you the disks that are available to be installed on to. If your drive does not appear here, check the compatibility guide to see if your hardware is supported.
13) The screen will ask you which keyboard that you want to use. The default is US default.
14) The next screen will ask you for a root password. This password is required later on in the client to access the system.
15) The next will ask to confirm that you want to perform the install to the selected drive. The process will repartition that drive which will effectively remove all the data on the drive.
16) Once the install has completed, it is just a matter for rebooting the system. Once rebooted, some additional configuration needs to be performed so the system can be managed from remote. Once booted, press F2 to customize the options. There are few options here, but the main one is “Configure Management Network”. In this screen, configure the network settings to a free IP Address on your network.
17) Once the vSphere Server has been installed, the next step is to install the client to administrator the vSphere Server. This is just a matter of running the install executable to the computer you want to install the client on. The install is very simple. The only option you can configure is where to install the files.
18) Once installed, the client can be run and the IP Address of the install, username and password need to entered in to connect to the vSphere install.
19) The last step of the install is to enter in the license key. To do this, select the vSphere server and then select the tab configuration. In configuration select the option under software called “Licensed Features”. The select the option at the top right edit. In the next screen select enter key and enter in the product key that was obtained from the VMWare page where the software was downloaded from. Once entered in the vSphere install is complete.
This video will look at creating a virtual machine, which we will use for installing Lubuntu on later in the video. The video goes through the complete process of creating the virtual machine and setting up the networking. Lubuntu is a lightweight version of Ubuntu so the procedures used in this video will also work in Ubuntu and also other simpler Linux distributions.
Download the PDF handout
Demonstration downloading and uploading the iso to vSphere
1. Open the web site http://www.lubuntu.net/. On the main page there are links to the distributions for Lubuntu. These include 32bit and 64bit for pc and the 64bit mac version. In this video the 64bit pc version (iso) which was download and saved to the desktop.
2. In order to use the iso with vSphere, it first needs to be uploaded to the VSphere server so that it can be accessed by the virtual machine for the Lubuntu install. To do this, run the VMware vSphere Client. This is a separate download to vSphere hypervisor. In order to administer vSphere installs, this product needs to be installed on your desktop operating system.
3. Once the vSphere client has loaded and you are logged in, select the configuration tab and then select the option on the left under hardware called storage. In order for vSphere to access the iso it needs to be transferred to storage that is connected to vSphere. Not only can local storage be connected to vSphere, but also other storage like San’s and shares connected using NFS can be used. In order to perform the upload, right click on the storage that you want to upload the file to and select the option browse datastore.
4. Once in the Datastore Browser, select the upload icon at the top and then choose if you want to upload a single file or a folder. It is just a matter of browsing to the file or folder and uploading it to the server.
Demonstration configuring networking on vSphere
1. To configure networking on vSphere, open the vSphere client and select the tab configuration. On the left hand side under hardware select the option networking.
2. In this screen this will show the networking that is currently configured in vSphere. In this case additional networks need to be added to vSphere so the virtual machines have virtual networks to communicate with each other.
3. To add a new network, select the option on the far right of the screen, add networking.
4. The add network wizard will give you two options, virtual machine and VMKerenl. In this case virtual machine is selected since the only requirement of this network is that the other virtual machines on the same network are able to communicate with each other. The VMKernel option communicates directly with the VMware hardware and thus is not virtualized like the virtual machine option.
5. On the next screen you need to decide if you want to create a vSphere switch or connect the network directly to a network card. In this case, the virtual machines will only be connecting to each other so there is no need to connect them to a network card so the option “Create a vSphere standard switch” will be used.
6. On the network screen you need to enter in the name for the virtual network. In this case the name New York Clients will be used. There is also an option for VLan’s if you have this configured on your network.
Demonstration Network Layout Old Complex Way
The previous solution of networking used 4 routers. The problem with this approach was that there was so much that could go wrong with the network. The routers needed routing tables configured in order to know where to route traffic to. If you are learning networking this is not bad configuration to use. However, for courses like Active Directory, the networking gets in the way. The fact is that regardless of how simple or complex the networking is between two sites, the configuration in Active Directory does not change. For this reason, a simpler network layout was created which is easier to use.
Demonstration simple network
This network uses only one virtual router to route traffic between 10 different networks. One network adapter is connected directly to the home network which is connected to the internet. Listed below are the different networks and what they are used for.
Internet: This connection is basically the physical network adapter in the server and allows the virtual router to access the internet.
New York Client: This is the main network for New York and is used in demonstrations whenever possible. It is the home NYDC1 which is a Domain Controller in New York. Whenever possible we attempt to use this Domain Controller.
Los Angeles: This is just like New York, a site in the company based in Los Angeles. In the older videos this was referred to as Washington, but was changed to make it simpler to display on maps in the videos.
London clients: This is the home of the clients on the London network. Essentially the same as New York and Los Angeles just a different geographic site.
New York Test Network: This network is for testing only. For example, if a new product were to be developed, it would be done in this network so it does not affect the other networks.
New York DMZ: This network is designed to host the servers that need to be directly accessed on the internet. In the real world there would be a firewall between this network and the internet.
Secure Network: This network is used when a higher level of security is required than normal. For example, the company has an R&D department they want to keep as secure as possible.
East Network: This network is used to show another division of the company. Used mostly in videos that require a child domain.
West Network: This network is used to show another division of the company. Used mostly in videos that require a child domain.
High Cost Training: This network is used when an external company is doing business with ITFreeTraining. Computers in this network will generally have their own forest and are connected to the other networks by a forest trust, if at all.
Demonstration creating the virtual machine
1. To do this, right click on the vSphere server in the left pane and select the option new virtual machine.
2. The virtual machine will give you two options. Typical and custom. To see all the options available select the option custom.
3. The first screen of the wizard asks for the name of the virtual machine, in this case the name router was used.
4. For storage select an area to store the virtual machine. For best performance local storage is normally used, however in some cases a San may be available which may offer far better performance.
5. For the virtual machine version, this will determine which hardware devices are installed in the virtual machine. If you are never planning on moving the virtual machine to another system you should always choose the highest virtual machine version. This will ensure that you get the most features. However, certain operating systems only have device drivers for certain versions of VMWare. This is because older operating systems only had device drivers for certain hardware. As the virtual machine version increases, the hardware changes and thus older operating systems may not have device drivers for that hardware. New hardware does mean more features and generally better performance. If you are not sure you can always select a lower version and then upgrade the version of the virtual machine later on, however you will not be able to down grade the virtual machine later on.
6. On the guest operating system screen choose the operating system that you are planning to install or the closest option that is available. The operating system that you choose here effects which options are shown later on. If for example the operating system does not support particular hardware, this hardware will not be available in the wizard. The option you choose will also configure some minor tweaks to the operating system that will help with performance.
7. The CPU screen lets you decide how many virtual CPU’s that virtual machine will have access to and how many virtual cores those CPU’s will have. Since the virtual machine will only work as a router and does not require much CPU, I will select 1 socket and 1 core.
8. For memory, the memory configured will be dedicated to that virtual machine. Paging on a vSphere is a little worse than on regular machines as this can affect all the virtual machines. For this reason it does not hurt to have a little more ram than you think you will need. In this case I will select 512 megabytes. Lubuntu can run on about 384 Megabytes of ram and if you are pressed for ram you can used this value, however 512 is a safe amount and you should not have any paging for basic routing.
9. The networking screen you can configure which network adapters you are using. Only 4 network adapters can be added here and a total of 10 are needed. So more network adapters will be added later on.
10. The SCSI controller allows you decide which virtual adapter will be used to access the virtual hard disk. Depending on which operating system you use will determine which one you should use. VMware Paravirtual will give you the best performance, however this option requires new operating system support and also if you export the virtual machine to another VMWare solution it may not support this controller.
11. On the select disk screen you need to decide which virtual disk you want to use for the virtual machine. If you have an existing virtual disk you can select it here. In this case a new hard disk is created so the option create a new virtual disk will be used.
12. When creating a new virtual hard disk, a few options need to be configured. The disk provision determines how the virtual disk will be created. Thick provision, lazy zeroed will create a file the same size as the virtual hard disk but will not zero out the data until that data is used. This creates the file faster than the Thick provision eager zeroed which zeros out all the data on the hard disk when it is first created. Thin provision creates a file that is the size of only the used data. As more data is added, the file gets bigger. This uses the least amount of space but offers the worst performance compared with the other two options. In this case thin provision is selected as hard disk performance for a router is not a concern.
13. The advanced options for the Scsi controller should only be configured in unusual situations. In this case they will be left on the defaults.
Demonstration add an external network
1. From the configuration tab for vSphere, press the option on the far right hand side add networking.
2. For the connection type “virtual machine” was selected to offer the most compatibility. If you are not planning on using this virtual machine on older versions of VMware, select the second option VMKernel which gives better performance.
3. On the network access screen, select the virtual switch that is displayed connected to the network adapter in your computer you want to use for external access. This should be the network card that is connected to your home network.
4. For the name of the network enter in the name local network.
Demonstration configure the networking
1. To configure the routing on the virtual machine called router, select it from the pane on the left hand side and then select the option in the middle of the screen edit virtual machine settings.
2. In the hardware option, the network cards need to be configured as follows.
Network adapter 1 (eth0): Local network
Network adapter 2 (eth1): New York Clients
Network adapter 3 (eth2): New York Test Network
Network adapter 4 (eth3): New York DMZ
Network adapter 5 (eth4): High Cost Training
Network adapter 6 (eth5): West Network
Network adapter 7 (eth6): Los Angeles clients
Network adapter 8 (eth7): Secure Network
Network adapter 9 (eth8): East Network
Network adapter 10 (eth9): London Clients
To add additional network cards, press the button at the top, add and select Ethernet Adapter. At the top of the network adapter add screen you can select the type. You should select the same type as the other network adapters currently in the system.
Demonstration Lunbntu Install
1. Before you start the virtual machine, the iso containing the install files needs to mount to the virtual machine virtual optical drive. This can be done by selecting the virtual machine and then selecting the option edit virtual machine settings.
2. In the hardware list, select CD/DVD drive 1 and then from the right hand side select the option datastore ISO file. Once selected, press browse and browse to the location of the iso file and select it.
3. At the top of the screen is the tick box “Connect at power on”. Make sure this option is ticked, otherwise the virtual optical drive will not be available to the virtual machine when it is started up until this option is ticked.
4. Once everything it ready, select the option power on the virtual machine. To see the video output of the virtual machine, select the console tab.
5. The first screen on the Lubuntu install determines the language that will be used for the first few screens of the install. Later on in the install, you will be asked again which language you want to use and this option will be used for the rest of the install.
6. The first screen of the Lubuntu install will give you a few options. If you want to have a look at Lubuntu before you install it, you can select the first option, try Lubuntu without installing, and this will load a copy of Lubuntu into memory allowing you to try Lubuntu first without making any changes to your hard disk. There is also an option to check the disk for defects before the install and to test memory. If you boot from the disk by mistake and want to boot to an existing operating system, select the last option, boot from first hard disk. In this case I want to install Lubuntu so I will select the option install Lubuntu.
7. The first screen of the install will determine which language will be used for the rest of the install.
8. The preparing for install screen reminds you of a few things before the install. It first reminds you that you should have at least 4.5 Gigabytes of space and an internet connection. There is also an option to download updates while installing. It is recommended that you select this option. If you wish to install 3rd party add-on’s which allow for mp3 support there is an option at the bottom to do this. This is not true open source software, however it works quite well. In the case of this install, the router does not require any additional software so I will leave this option un-ticked but tick the option to download update to ensure the install has the latest updates installed.
9. On the installation type screen this will remind you that the disk that you are performing the install on will be erased. You also have the option to encrypt the install to make it more secure. The option LVM uses the Linux logical volume manager with the install. This provides additional features to the operating system for combining multiple drives together and resizing the drive. This means that if the drive is removed and used in another system, the system will need to support LVM. In this case the router will only be using the one drive and thus additional features provided by LVM are not required, therefore this option will not be ticked.
10. The “where are you” screen will ask where this computer will be running from. This will be used to configure the time zone on the computer so you should select the location where this computer will be running from.
11. The keyboard layout screen allows you to select which keyboard you are using and what keys are on that keyboard. If you are not sure which to select, there is an option at the bottom, detect keyboard layout which will attempt to detect which keyboard you have.
12. On the “who are you” screen you can enter in some details of the first user that will be created on the system. In this case, name, computer name, and username will be sent to router. If you are using the install for something other than providing services like routing, enter in a friendly user name. In this case, the password has been set as password.
13. Once the install is complete it will ask for a restart.
The network adapters in the operating system still need to be configured and also the operating system configured to allow routing. This will be covered in the next video in the series.
This video will look at how to install VMWare tools in a virtual machine on Windows and Ubuntu. The process of installing VMWare tools is pretty much the same regardless of which version of Windows or Ubuntu that you are running. The video also looks at the advantages and features gained when installing VMWare Tools.
Download the PDF handout
What is VMWare Tools?
VMWare tools is a suite of software and device drivers that improves the performance of a virtual machine. It is available for a large amount of Windows and Linux based operating systems. Without VMWare tools, the virtual machine may be sluggish in performance, in particular with graphic updates and mouse movements. With VMWare tools installed, additional features are also available to the virtual machine. For example, the ability for the virtual machine to sync its time clock with the host time. Sound support is added and the ability for the mouse pointer to move seamlessly between the virtual machine and the operating system. Lastly VMWare tools improves snapshots on the virtual machine. Without VMWare tools installed, when a snapshot is taken, the virtual machine will freeze for a longer period of time before control of the virtual machine is available to the user.
Operating System Support
VMWare software has been on the market since the late 90’s. Since it has been around for such a long time, there is excellent support for the main operating systems. Support is included for every Windows operating system from Windows 95. It also supports all the major Linux distributions, both modern and older versions. For alterative operating systems, it also supports Solaris, FreeBSD and Mac OS.
Demonstration Windows Install
1) To start the install, load up the VMWare Client. In this case it is VMWare vSphere Client. If you are using a different VMWare solution the client software may be different.
2) In VMWare vSphere client, select the virtual machine and then select the console icon.
3) When a mouse pointer is being used in a VMWare virtual machine, the mouse pointer may be captured by that virtual machine. To release it, you need to press ctrl and alt together.
4) To install VMWare Tools, select the VM menu and then select guest followed by Install/Update VMWare Tools.
5) The VMWare tools setup ISO will be mounted to the local optical drive. It is just a matter of running the setup from the drive or running it from the auto run. In most installs the default options will work fine and there is no need to remove or select additional components.
6) Once VMWare Tools is installed, additional options can be configured in the virtual machine. To access some of these options, the virtual machine first needs to be shutdown. To access these settings, right click the virtual machine and select the option edit settings. The settings in here relate to all the configurable options of the virtual machine including which hardware the virtual machine is using. To access the VMWare tools options, select the options tab and then select VMWware Tools. In here you can change how the virtual machine will act when options like pressing the stop, start and restart buttons are pressed. The scripts that are run during these actions can be enabled or disabled. Since a script is run when these actions are performed, the administrator can add there own commands to these scripts.
7) In the advanced section of VMWare tools options, you have two tickboxs. “Check and upgrade Tools during power cycling” will automatically check for new versions of the VMWare tools when the system is restarted and install it keeping VMWare tools as up to date as possible. The option “Synchronize guest time with host” will automatically sync the guest operating system time with the host. If the virtual machine does not have the ability to do this itself you should enable this option.
Demonstration Ubuntu Install
When using Linux in a virtual machine, many distributions will come with VMWare Tools bundled with the operating system. Even though this is the case, it is worthwhile installing VMWare Tools to ensure that you have the latest version of the tools available on the operating system.
1) From the console screen of the virtual machine, select the VM menu and then select guest followed by Install/Upgrade VMWare Tools. This will mount an ISO containing the VMWare tools to a virtual optical drive in the virtual machine.
2) Open the ISO that has been mounted, a Window should appear with the VMWare Tools on it. It is just a matter of right clicking the package and selecting the option Extract to.
3) To perform the install a terminal needs to be opened. This can be done by selecting the icon in the top left and selecting applications and then performing a search for terminal.
4) To install VMWare tools, change to the directory that the files were extracted to and then run the command “sudo ./vmware-install.pl –d” Once complete, the virtual machine will need to restarted to complete the install.
“Overview of VMware Tools” http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=340
“Installing VMware Tools in an Ubuntu virtual machine (1022525)” http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1022525
This video will look at installing VMWare tools on Lubuntu. VMware tools adds additional features and drivers to the operating system. This improves the performance of the operating system and also allows the host operating system to interact with the virtual machine better.
Download the PDF handout
1) On vSphere right click the virtual machine and select guest and then select “Install/Upgrade VMware tools”. This will mount an ISO to the virtual machine cdrom in which you can install VMware Tools from.
2) In order to install VMWare tools, a script needs to be run from the ISO. In order to do this a terminal needs to be opened. In Lubuntu this is done by opening the start menu and selecting LXTerminal from under accessories. In different versions of Linux, this shortcut may be somewhere else.
3) If you want to find out more information about any command, enter “man” followed by the command you want to find out about. E.g. man sudo. This will bring up the man page which is short for manual which is the built-in help system used by Unix and Linux systems. To move around a page use the up and down keys. To move up a page press page up and to move down a page press page down.
4) In order to run the script, this script needs to be run as root. To change to the root user run the command “sudo su”. This opens a shell that has root access, however you can also run individual commands using the sudo command.
5) To change to the directory with VMWare Tools files, enter in “cd /media/router/VMware\ Tools/”. Depending on which user you are using and which operating system that you are using this path may be different.
6) In this particular case I am going to copy the file to the /tmp directory in order to decompress. This is done with the command “cp VMwareTools-9.0.0-782409.tar.gz /tmp”. The /tmp is used for temporary files so any file that is copied into it, do not expect it to be available later on.
7) To decompress the file run the command “gunzip VMwareTools-9.0.0-782409.tar.gz”. This will decompress the file and save a new copy to the same filename without the gz extension.
8) The file contains many smaller files that have been combined together using tar. To extract them use the command “tar –xvf VMwareTools-9.0.0-782409.tar”.
9) Once the files are extracted, run the command “./vmware-install.pl –d.” The –d parameter tells the script to accept the default values when running.
10) To remove the file and folders containing the install files run the command “rm –rf vmware-tools-distrib”.
11) Once the install is complete, you will need to reboot the virtual machine.
This video will look at how to configure the routing on Lubuntu to allow the operating system to work as a router. The video also looks at how to configure other network settings like the IP Address, DNS, gateway, etc.
Download the PDF handout
Download the interface files
Download the network map
Demonstration configure routing
Linux systems by default do not allow routing between interfaces for security reasons. The configuration for different Linux systems may be in different locations depending on the distribution.
1. Edit the file /etc/sysctl.conf using your choice of editing software. In this case pico was used.
2. Two settings need to be enabled to allow routing for IPv4 and IPv6 packets. These are net.ipv4_ip_forward=1 and net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1 These settings by default will have a hash at the start of the line which makes the line a comment and thus causes the line to be ignored.
Demonstration Network interfaces
Depending on the distribution of Linux, the configuration file may be in a different location. The file used in this demonstration can be download from http://ITFreeTraining.com/handouts/lab/interfaces or listed at the bottom of this description.
1. The file to configure the network interface is located in /etc/network/interfaces
2. Any line starting with a hash is ignored and is considered a comment. It is a good idea to add comments to the file to make it easier to read.
3. In order for an interface to be used, it needs to borrow up. This can be done with the auto command which is short for automatic. In order to bring up an interface, enter in auto followed by the identifier of the interface. Linux numbers its interfaces starting with eth0. When the computer starts up, Linux will bring its interface up automatically.
4. For IPv4 there are five lines. Unlike a lot of other configurations in Linux, the interface file allows additional details to be included on extra lines. So essentially the iface is the command and the rest of the information is the settings for that iface command. The commands are self-explanatory for the most part except for the first one. Iface standards for interface. After this is inet which is the networking family for IPv4. Static means the address is a configured address rather than a dynamic address obtained from a service like DHCP.
5. IPv6 is much the same as IPv4. The difference in the first iface line is that inet6 is used rather than inet. The address and netmask line are self-explanatory. Unlike IPv4 an additional line “pre-up modprobe ipv6” has been added. During the boot up sequence, if the IPv6 module has not been loaded the configuration of the IPv6 address will fail. Adding the pre-up command ensures that the module is always loaded before configuration. This likely could also be added in /etc/module. It is possible that IPv6 configuration will work without this line.
# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet static
iface eth0 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth1 inet static
iface eth1 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth2 inet static
iface eth2 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth3 inet static
iface eth3 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth4 inet static
iface eth4 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth5 inet static
iface eth5 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth6 inet static
iface eth6 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth7 inet static
iface eth7 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth8 inet static
iface eth8 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
iface eth9 inet static
iface eth9 inet6 static
pre-up modprobe ipv6
This video looks at how to add a route on your local DSL device to route traffic from a local network to a virtual router created in a previous video. If this route is not present, computers on the local network will not be able to contact virtual computers on the virtual network.
Download the PDF handout
By default, computers on your local network will route traffic to your local DSL device. The DSL device will route this traffic to your ISP which will not know where to send it. When looking at responses back from the network, you may get unusual results. For example you may get a result back from an address starting from 10. This occurs because an internal device in your ISP is responding back stating it does not know how to route that traffic.
In order to add a route to your home router you need to access the admin interface of the router. If you run the command IPConfig on your local computer, the gateway address given will usually be the address of the management interface for that device. In this case, the IP Address is 192.168.0.1. Different devices have different interfaces. Essentially you need to find an interface in which you can add routes. The route to be added is 192.168.0.0/16. All the virtual machines use an address that is starting with 192.168. In this case, the route will have the gateway address of 192.168.0.250. This is the IP Address of the virtual router on this network.
Shown here is the virtual router which is connected to the local area network and also the virtual computers. This works well until you attempt to contact a virtual machine from a desktop computer that is connected to the 192.168.0.0 network. This traffic will be routed to the Internet. In order to have this corrected, a route is added to the DSL device which will route any traffic for the internal virtual network to the virtual router. This will allow computers on the local area network to access virtual networks without having to change any configurations on the local computer.
This video will look at enabling Teredo on Ubuntu. Teredo is an IPv6 transitioning protocol. When enabled it allows IPv4 based clients to access IPv6 based networks. This is done without the need to have any IPv6 devices on the network or your ISP supporting IPv6 networking.
Download the PDF handout
A typical home network will have a DSL device that connects to the internet using IPv4. The DSL device or the ISP may not support IPv6. The setup used in this video is that a virtual router is created in the previous videos that routes traffic from the virtual network to the local network and the internet. This virtual network supports IPv6. In order to allow it to access the IPv6 internet Teredo is used. Teredo takes IPv6 packets and places them in an IPv4 packet. This is routed using the IPv4 network to a Teredo Server. The Teredo server removes the IPv6 packet encased in the IPv4 packet and then routes the packet on the IPv6 network.
1. To enable Teredo, open a terminal. To open a terminal, open the start menu and select Accessories and then select LXTerminal.
2. To ping an IPv6 address, use the command ping6. When Teredo is not enabled and there is no IPv6 networking configured, this command will return a message saying that the network is unreachable.
3. There are number of different packages in Linux that can be installed to enable Teredo support. In this case the package Miredo will be used because it is simple to install and setup. To install it run the following command “sudo apt-get install miredo”
4. Once the package has installed, when attempting to ping IPv6 addresses, a response should be received.
5. The configuration file for the Miredo package is found at /etc/miredo.conf
If you are having problems with Teredo not working, edit this file and change the server that Teredo is using. In the file there are entries for Debian and Microsoft. The default is Debian, however the Microsoft one may work better. Your ISP may have a Teredo server or there may be a public Teredo server in your area that you can use.
“Howto enable IPv6, the Teredo way” http://blargasm.com/post/7979540039/ipv6-teredo-howto
“Teredo tunneling” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teredo_tunneling
Integration Services is additional software that can be installed on a Hyper-V virtual machine which adds additional features. This video will look at how to install Integration Services on Windows and Ubuntu. Integration Services is the functional equivalent of VMWare Tools from VMWare.
Download the PDF handout
What Is Integration Services
Integration Services adds software to the virtual machine including device drivers. The device drivers it adds allows the virtual machine to communicate with the host. In some cases the device driver may be missing from the virtual machine and this will install those device drivers. Most noticeably, the network adapter will often not work until Integration Services is installed. The additional software that is added also adds additional functionality. For example, without Integration Services installed, the mouse pointer will often be sluggish in the virtual machine and Ctrl-Atl-Left arrow will need to be pressed to release the mouse pointer from the virtual machine. Other features include heartbeat service, data exchange, time synchronization and improved snapshot performance.
Heartbeat service allows the host to send a heartbeat message to the virtual machine. If the virtual machine does not response to this heartbeat message the host knows the virtual machine has crashed. Data exchange allows the host to obtain information from the virtual machine, such as which operating system is running.
Time synchronization syncs the time in the virtual machine to the same time on the local time clock on the host computer. If you are using time synchronization software on the virtual machine you should disable this.
Improved snapshot performance will reduce the sluggishness of the virtual machine when a snap shot is performed. Although taking a snap shot will reduce the performance of the virtual machine, without this feature the virtual machine will stall when a snapshot is taken.
Remote Desktop virtualization allows Windows Server 2012 to perform administration on the virtual machine using server manager, assuming the virtual machine supports it.
Operating System Supported
Windows Server 2003 with SP2 and above
Windows XP SP3 or Windows XP x64 with SP2 and above
Linux, the following are supported: CentOS 5.7,5.8, 6.0 to 6.3/Red Hat Enterprise 5.7,5.8,6.0 to 6.3/Suse Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2/Open SUSE 12.1/Ubuntu 12.04
Demonstration Windows Install
1. To access Hyper-V manager, open Server Manager and select Hyper-V Manager from the tools menu.
2. Without Integration Services installed, in some cases, when you click on the virtual machine desktop the mouse pointer will be captured by the virtual machine. To release the mouse pointer, you need to press the button ctrl, alt and left arrow.
3. To install Integration Services, double click on the virtual machine you want to install it on and select the action menu and then select the option “Insert Integration Services Setup Disk”. This will place the setup software in the virtual optical drive and it is just a matter of running it to install the software. In some operating systems, Integration Service may already be pre-installed. For example, Windows Server 2012 Integration Services is pre-installed. This may be an older version then the version that is available on Hyper-V so it is still a good idea to install Integration Services to ensure that the virtual machine has the latest version that is available.
4. To see the settings that can be configured with Integration Services, right click the virtual machine and select the option “settings”. From the settings, select the option Integration Services at the bottom. The features that Integration Services adds is at the right. To enable or disable a feature is just a matter of ticking or clearing the option. The options are as follows.
Operating system shutdown: This runs a script on the virtual machine to shut down the operating system cleanly rather than powering off the virtual machine.
Time Synchronization: Syncs the virtual machine time with the physical host’s time. See below for problems that may occur.
Data Exchange: This allows the host to read information on the virtual machine like which operating system is running and which version of that operating system.
Heartbeat: This allows the host to send a message like a ping to the virtual machine to determine if the virtual machine is still running.
Backup (volume snapshot): This allows the host to communicate better with the virtual machine when performing snapshots. This helps prevent the virtual machine from stalling when a snapshot is performed.
Time Sync Problems
If the virtual machine and the physical machine are both performing time syncing this can cause problems. In a Windows environment, the PDC is the top of the time hierarchy. If the server hosting is a member of the domain, this server will attempt to sync its time from the PDC or another Domain Controller. This can cause problems as the physical machine will attempt to sync from the virtual machine and the virtual machine will often be configured to sync from an external time server. In this case, you would most likely switch off time synchronization on the virtual machine.
Demonstration Ubuntu Install
In some cases, a download is available from Microsoft in order to enable Integration Services in Linux. In other cases Integration Services is pre-installed in Linux and only needs to be enabled.
1. To install, right click on the top left icon and select applications and then do a search for terminal and open it.
2. To make the changes, run “sudo pico /etc/initramfs-tools/modules”. Sudo performs the following command with root access. Pico is a text editor and the last option is the configuration file that needs to be edited. In order to enable Integration Services, the initial operating system that boots Linux needs to be modified since Integration Services works at a very low level in the operating system. Four lines need to be added to the file as shown below.
3. Once the changes are made, the command “sudo update-initramfs –u” needs to be run. This will update the image that is read on boot.
4. To complete, the operating system needs to be reinstalled.
“Understanding and Installing Hyper-V Integration Services” http://www.virtuatopia.com/index.php/Understanding_and_Installing_Hyper-V_Integration_Services
“Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Integration Services” http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/16715.windows-server-2012-hyper-v-integration-services.aspx
“How to install Hyper-V Integration Services (ICs) in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS” http://baudlabs.com/how-to-install-hyper-v-integration-services-in-ubuntu-12-04-lts/