Home > 70-410 Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 > 70-410 Installing/Upgrading Windows Server
Windows Server 2012 has a choice of 3 different interfaces. These are full, minimal and server core. Minimal is new to Windows Server 2012.This video will look at how to change between the interfaces and what the advantages are of each interface.
Download the PDF handout
Which interface is best?
The full GUI interface supports all the features of Windows Sever 2012. It however uses the most resources on the computer to operate. The advantage is that it should be able to run any software that was designed to run on Windows Server 2012. The minimal interface has the most graphical intensive interface parts of the interface removed. This means it uses less resources, however some graphical based applications can still run. For example, you can still run Server Manager. The server core interface uses the least amount of resources on the computer but supports the least amount of graphical functions. For this reason only very basic graphical applications can be run like notepad.
Server 2012 Interfaces
Depending on what graphical requirements the software has will determine which interface that software can run on. Items like the command prompt, PowerShell and .Net can run on any interface because by their nature this software does not require graphical interface features. Server Manager and Microsoft Management Console require some graphical interfaces and thus require at least the Minimal interface. Using the minimal interface you can access to some of the items in the control panel but not all. Windows explorer, Internet explorer and built-in help only work in the full GUI interface.
With Windows Server 2012, more roles are supported in server core then were previously available in Windows Server 2008. The roles that are not supported are Active Directory Federation Services, Application Server, Fax Server, Network Policy and Access Services, Remote Desktop Services, Remote Desktop Gateway, Remote Desktop Session Host, Remote Desktop Web Access, Volume Activation Services and Windows deployment services. Server core in Windows Server 2012 also support SQL Server 2012.
If you are running the full GUI interface, to change the interface to the minimal or server core is just a matter of removing a feature using server manager.
To remove a feature, run server manager and from the manage pull down menu and then select the option Remove Roles and Features.
From the remove roles and features wizard, select the server or servers that you want to work with and then move forward in the wizard until you reach the features screen.
From the features screen, the interface options are found under User Interfaces and Infrastructure. There are 3 sub features listed below.
Graphical Management Tools and Infrastructure: This feature provides enough of the graphical interface to run server manager and other administrative tools. If you remove this feature you will reduce the server to the server core interface.
Desktop Experience: This feature is not required by any of the interfaces. If you want additional features in the operating system like the ability to run software like Windows media player you will need to add this feature. Adding this feature adds software to the server that makes it more like a desktop. In most cases you will not need this feature on a server since servers generally do not need a lot of features that desktop use.
Server Graphical Shell: This provides graphical support for the task bar and some advanced graphical functions. If you remove this feature the server will be reduced to the minimal interface.
Once you have removed Graphical Management for server core or Server Graphical Shell, the server will need to be rebooted in order for the changes to take effect. When the features are removed, the binaries for this features are removed as well. This prevents these unused binaries from being used by an attacker, making the server more secure.
Changing to the full GUI from server core
Since server core is not able to run server manager, the command needs to be run using PowerShell. To start up PowerShell, run PowerShell from the command prompt and then run the following command for minimal or for full GUI.
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 8 -9
"Windows Server 2012" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_2012
This video will look at the features and functionality that is available in the 4 editions of Windows Server 2012. The video covers the basic features and licenses for each edition of Windows Server 2012 so that you can make the correct decision of which Windows Server 2012 edition to purchase.
Download the PDF handout
Windows 2012 Editions
Windows 2012 comes in 4 editions, reduced from 7 in Windows Server 2012. These are Foundation, Essentials, Standard and Datacenter. If you compare these to the Windows Server 2008 editions, there is a direct equivalent edition from Foundation to Foundation and Datacenter to Datacenter. The Windows Server 2012 Essentials edition feature wise is most equivalent to the Standard and Web edition of Windows Server 2008. The Standard Edition is equivalent to the enterprise edition of Windows Server 2008.
Itanium and 32bit support has been dropped in Windows Server 2012. There is no longer a separate Itanium edition and 32bit editions. The HPC (High Performance Computing) Server edition has also been dropped, but this can be downloaded and installed as a free optional extra for the Standard and Datacenter edition.
One of the major differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2012 is that you can switch between the full GUI interface and the core interface. Previously in Windows Server 2008, the only way that you could achieve this was to reinstall the operating system. This means you could essentially setup the operating system using the full GUI interface which is a lot easier than using the command line and remove the full core when you have finished configuring the server. If you were using the core interface, you could also add the full GUI interface in later on if you realized that you need additional features, for example you need to use Remote Desktop Services.
The Foundation edition is the cheapest of the Windows Server 2012 editions and thus has the least amount of features. It is targeted toward the small business and thus includes basic file and printing services. The install is limited to 15 users and, unlike the other editions of Windows Server, it defaults to a simple dashboard rather than the server manager. The dashboard is a number of quick links to commonly used configuration options. The last difference is that the install requires a physical computer and a network card to be present. You cannot install Foundation edition into a virtual machine or a computer that does not have a working network card and a device driver available for that network card during the install.
Essentials edition is the same feature wise as the Foundation edition. The main difference between the two is that Essentials supports 25 users rather than 15 users. It can also be installed on a virtual machine and defaults to Server Manager rather than the dashboard found in the Foundation edition.
The Standard and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2012 contains all the features of Windows. The two differences between the 2 editions is that the standard edition supports 2 virtual instances while the Datacenter edition supports any number of virtual instances and Datacenter is not available via retail channels. In this case, a virtual instance means that you can run an additional virtual copy of Windows Server 2012 at no extra cost. For example, you could run 2 standard Virtual Windows Server 2012 instances with a standard Windows Server 2012 license. When both virtual instances are in use, the physical install of Windows Server 2012 standard can only be used to manage the server. This is covered in more detail in the Windows Server 2012 licensing video.
The biggest change between the Standard/Datacenter and Foundation/Essentials edition is the way users are licensed. Both the Standard/Datacenter editions do not allow users to use the server unless additional licenses called CALS (Client Access License) are purchased. CAL’s are covered in more detail in a later video.
Windows Server 2012 limits
There are a number of different limitations of Windows Server 2012 depending on which edition you purchase.
CPU: Foundation supports 1 CPU, Essentials 2 and Standard/Datacenter support 64. The CPUs can have any number of cores.
RAM: Foundation 32GB, Essentials 64GB and Standard/Datacenter 64TB.
Max Users: Foundation 15 users, Essentials 25 users and Standard/Datacenter is only limited by how many CALs (Client Access Licenses) that you purchase.
RRAS: Routing and Remote Access is limited to 50 connections on Foundation, 250 on Essentials and unlimited amount on Standard/Datacenter.
Active Directory Domain Services: Foundation and Essentials can only be used as a Domain Controller in the Root domain. Standard/Datacenter have no limitations.
Active Directory Certificate Services: Foundation and Essentials can only be used as Certificate Authorities, the other components of Certificate Services is not supported. Standard/Datacenter editions have no limitations on how they can be used.
Hyper V/Server core: These are not available on Foundation and Essentials but are available on Standard/DataCenter.
File Services Limits: Foundation and Essentials are limited to 1 Standalone DFS (Distributed File System) while the Standard/Datacenter editions can have an unlimited number. DFS allows multiple shares to be combined from multiple locations to be seen by the user as the one share. Foundation and Essentials do not support storing DFS in Active Directory which provides redundancy if the server holding the DFS were to fail.
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 1-6
This video will look at 9 of the biggest new features in Windows Server 2012. Understanding what is available will help decide if Windows Server 2012 is the right choice for you.
Download the PDF handout
This video will look at the following new features in Windows Server 2012. Server 2012 Interfaces, Server Core, Server Manager, Storage Spaces, Resilient File System (ReFS), SMB 3.0, DirectAccess, Hyper-V improvements and RemoteFX improvements.
Server 2012 Interfaces
Windows Server 2008 introduced the core interface. The choice of whether to use the full GUI interface or the server core interface had to be made at install time and could not be changed. With Windows Server 2012 you can change the interface at any time. To change the interface, it is a simple matter of removing and adding features using server manager, rebooting the server, and then the interface will be changed. Windows Server 2012 also adds an additional interface called the minimal interface. This reduces some of the more intensive graphical options but still allows access to tools like Server Manager. The minimal interface provides an interface between the full and server core interface.
Windows Server 2012 increases the number of roles that are available in server core. Of the 19 roles in Windows Server 2012, 12 of these are available in server core. Roles not available are Active Directory Federation Services, Fax Server & Application Server, Network Policy and Access Services, Remote desktop Services, Remote Desktop Services Gateway, Remote Desktop Session Host, Remote Desktop Web Access, Volume Activation Services and Windows Deployment Services.
Most of these are due to the graphical nature of the role, for example, Remote Desktop Services and other associated roles are not available since Remote Desktop Services is very graphical intensive. With Windows Server 2012, SQL server is also supported in server core.
Windows Server 2012 offers a lot of improvements to server manager as well as changing the interface look and feel. The difference with server manager is that you can manage multiple servers in the one pool. For example, if you want to install a particular role on a group of servers, you could put these servers in the one pool and install the role to all these servers in one go.
The interface in server manager has changed so that there is a tile for each role installed on the server. There are also menus on the left hand side that allow quick access to configuration features available for that role.
This is a feature available in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012. It allows for multiple drives to be combined together to form one logical unit of storage. The drives used can be internal or external or a combination of the two. Storage space allows redundancy to be configured so that if a drive was to fail, the failed drive could be replaced and no data would be lost. Storage spaces also supports thin provision. This is when the drive is stored in a file rather than a block of data which can increase in size as more data is added.
NTFS was introduced in Windows NT in 1993. Since then it has been expanded and developed as required, however a new approach was required for modern computing. Microsoft has introduced the Resilient File System (ReFS) as a replacement for NTFS. Since it is a replacement for NTFS, it is considered to be a next generation file system. The main feature is that it allows the file system to be self-healing which means problems can be corrected without the need to reboot the computer. NTFS has introduced simpler features but due to the fundamental way it was originally designed, it has had limited success at making these features work.
Since the file system is new, it requires Windows 8 or Windows Server 2012. ReFS, at this stage, does not support the following features, booting the operating system, disk quotas, EFS encryption and compression.
Server Message Block (SMB) is the protocol used to share folders. With Windows Server 2012 there is a new version of the protocol called SMB 3.0. There are a number of enhancements to the protocol to allow the protocol to work over the network better in particular with virtual machines. The most noticeable new feature is the protocol now has the ability to work at the block level. Previously if you wanted to work at the block level over the network you would have needed a protocol like ISCSI.
SMB 3.0 also adds support for high availability features including transparent failover and SMB multichannel. Transparency failover means that when a server fails in a cluster and the user is moved to a different server, this process should be transparent to the user and they should not notice an outage. SMB multichannel means that multi-channel can be combined together to form one channel, which increases the data throughput.
DirectAccess is designed to be a replacement for traditional VPN Software. Previously VPN software would need to be installed and the user would need to authenticate using this software in order to create a tunnel back to the office. This may have required the user to login to the computer first, or some VPN software would prompt the user for this information on the Windows login screen. DirectAccess works seamlessly and is able to connect up to the office using a secure tunnel as soon as the computer is started up and does not require the user to enter in a username or password. Windows Server 2012, DirectAccess no longer requires IPv6.
There has been a lot of improvements to hyper-V. Microsoft has released 10 new features for Hyper-V and updated 7 old features to add additional functionality. The biggest changes are better support for live migration of virtual machines. This means that it is easier to move a virtual machine from one server to another server. Also there is additional support for resource monitoring. This will allow you to better determine which virtual machines are using which resources on the server. For example, to determine how much CPU is being used by a particular virtual machine. Windows Server 2012 also allows replicating to be configured between an active virtual machine and another virtual machine. Replication changes are sent as blocks so this means that if the main virtual machine was to fail and the second virtual machine was used, some data may be lost. For this reason it is not at feature that was made to work for high availability.
RemoteFX was first introduced in Windows 2008 R2 service pack 1. RemoteFX allows a server running Remote Desktop Services (Terminal services) to render a 3D image on the server which can be sent to the 2D client. This eliminates the need for the client to have 3D hardware. Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 would only work with particular 3D cards. Windows Server 2012 now supports a greater range of 3D cards and also has a software mode if there is no 3D card in the server.
“What's New in Windows Server 2012” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831769.aspx
“Windows Server Installation Options” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831786.aspx
This video will look at the install and minimum requirements for installing Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R12. The video also looks as some recommended requirements.
Download the PDF handout
Server 2012/R2 Hardware Requirements
For Windows Server 2012/R2, Microsoft released some install requirements. These provide the basic requirements to install Windows Server 2012/R2. Microsoft does not release minimum requirements for the server alone, rather they release minimum requirements based on what role or software that server is running. In this case, the minimum requirements for the Essentials Edition have been used. If you are using Windows Server 2012/R2 in a virtual machine, Microsoft recommends upping the RAM in the virtual machine to 800 megabytes. Once the virtual machine has started up, this can be reduced to 512 megabytes. It should also be remembered that if you plan to perform an install of the Essentials Edition, the install will require a working network card and also drivers for that network card.
1.4Ghz 64bit CPU (32bit not supported)
512 Megabytes of RAM
23 Gigabytes of hard disk space
Essentials Edition requires a working network card with device drivers to install.
Minimum Requirements for Essentials Edition
1.4Ghz 64bit single core CPU
1.3Ghz 64bit multi-core CPU
2 Gigabytes of RAM
160 Gigabytes of hard disk space
160 Gigabytes system partition if possible
Microsoft also released some optional requirements for Windows Server 2012/R2. These are not required to run or install Windows Server 2012/R2. If you are running a headless server, that is no keyboard, mouse, or monitor, you will need to ensure that your bios is configured to not halt the computer during boot if these items are not detected.
Super VGA (800x600) or higher resolution monitor
Keyboard and mouse (or other compatible pointing devices)
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 5-6
“System Requirements and Installation Information for Windows Server 2012 R2” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn303418.aspx
“System Requirements for Windows Server 2012 R2 Essentials” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn383626.aspx
“Appendix A: Reviewing AD FS Requirements” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff678034.aspx
Windows Server 2012 licensing is based on the number of CPU’s and virtual machines that servers are running. This video looks at determining how many Windows Server 2012 licenses you will need and how you can transfer licenses from one server to another server.
Download the PDF handout
License Per Edition
Windows Server 2012 comes in 4 different editions. Depending on which edition that you purchase will determine how many CPU’s that server can run and how many virtual instances of that operating system that you can run on that server. If you perform a physical install on Windows Server 2012, you must run any virtual instances for that server on the same server that the physical install is on.
Datacenter and standard essentially have the same features as each other, the only real difference between the two editions is that DataCenter supports an unlimited number of virtual machines, while Standard supports 2.
Essentials edition differs from the other editions in that the install can only be performed in a virtual or physical machine. This is essentially because there is only one virtual instance supported and also Essentials edition does not support the Hyper-V role.
Each edition of Windows Server 2012 allows 2 CPU’s to be installed in the server except for the Foundation edition which only allows one CPU to be used in the server. The Foundation install is also the only edition of Windows Server 2012 that does not allow the install to be performed in a virtual machine.
The CPU’s limit only relates to the number of physical CPU’s the computer has. Each CPU can have any number of cores.
Only Standard and Datacenter support more than 2 CPU’s in the server. If you want to add additional CPU’s you will need to purchase additional Windows Server 2012 licenses. Each license that you purchase will allow you to add 2 additional CPU’s to that server. The licenses you need to purchase need to be the same as the edition of Windows Server 2012.
For each copy of Windows Server 2012 Standard edition that you purchase you can run 2 virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 on that server. If you do use both Windows Server 2012 virtual licenses, the physical install of Windows Server 2012 on that server must be used only to manage the virtual instances. You can’t install additional roles on this physical server. You can use a different technology to run the virtual instances. For example, you could run VMware to run the virtual instances.
For each additional Windows Server 2012 Standard edition you purchase this will allow you to run 2 more additional Windows Server 2012 virtual servers.
Moving Virtual Server
You are free to move licenses between servers, however 90 days must past between moves. This prevents virtual machines being moved from server to server if the server was to be taken down for short term maintenance. If you wanted to do this, you would need to purchase additional licenses for the server that will be running the virtual instances while the server is down for maintenance.
This rule does not apply if the server experiences extreme hardware failure and was never to be brought back online again. If this is the case, the license can be moved from that server to the replacement server immediately.
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 3,6
“Introduction to Windows Server 2012 Foundation” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj679892.aspx
“Windows Server 2012” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_2012
“Memory Limits for Windows Releases (Windows)” http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366778(v=vs.85).aspx#physical_memory_limits_windows_server_2012K
This video will look at the 3 different CALs that are available in Windows Server 2012. These are user, device and RDS. This video looks at how many you need in order to make sure your network is compliant and what these CALs allow you to do and not do.
Download the PDF handout
What is a CAL?
A CAL is a Client Access License which is required for a user or computer to use features on a Windows Server, like file shares or printing. Services like unauthenticated internet access do not require a CAL. If you however use a 3rd party system to authenticate users before they connect to the web server you would need to purchase a CAL.
Types of CALs
There are 3 basic CALs available for Windows Server 2012. There are other features CALs that are available for products like SQL Server, but these are not covered in this video. The CALs covered in this video are user, device and Remote Desktop.
User: Required for a user to access a Windows Server.
Device: Required for a device to access a Windows Server.
Remote Desktop: Required for each user or device that uses Remote Desktop Services. Does not include remote desktop connection for administrator performing administration work on the server. Each server supports 2 remote desktop connection for administration only.
A user CAL is associated with a user. Once the user has a CAL, it is associated with the user, and that user is free to access any Windows Server on the network using any device. If you have more users than devices on your network you should purchase user CALs.
Device CALs are associated with a devices like a computer or device like a tablet. Once a device CAL is associated with that device, any number of users can login to that device and access Windows Server. The users that use this device do not require a user CAL. Device CALs are a good choice when you have more users on your network than devices.
Remote Desktop CALs
This CAL is also referred to as an additive CAL as once you add the CAL to Windows Server it activates additional functionality. Unlike the other CALs, remote desktop CALs need to be activated before they can be used. User and Device CALs rely on the administrator to check that they have enough CALs on the network to cover the number of users and devices they have. Functionality on the Windows Server is not gained or lost if the Administrator does not have the correct number of user and device CALs.
Remote Desktop CALs come in 3 different types. These are user, device and external connector.
User: Like a standard User CAL, a remote desktop user CAL allows the one user to connect to the remote desktop server using any device.
Device: A device CAL allows any device to connect up and use Remote Desktop Service. Any user is free to login to this device and use it.
External Connector: This allows multiple users from a 3rd party to connect to a single Remote Desktop Server.
New CALs support older OSs
The CAL that you purchase can be used with any operating system before it. For example, if you are running Windows Server 2008 on your network and need additional CALs, you should purchase Windows Server 2012 CALs as these will work with Windows Server 2008 and will work when you upgrade your Servers to Windows Server 2012. Microsoft also allows CALs to be updated to newer operating systems as required.
“Client Access Licenses and Management Licenses” http://www.microsoft.com/licensing/about-licensing/client-access-license.aspx
“Newegg TV: Microsoft Windows Server 2012 CALs Interview” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dYDeDNIUt0
This video will show how to perform a clean install of Windows Server 2012 R2 standard edition.
Download the PDF handout
In order to install Windows Server 2012, you require a 1.4Ghz 64bit CPU (32bit CPU’s are not supported) 512Megabytes of RAM, and 32Gigabyes of free space. This will be enough to install Windows Server, however this is the bare minimum. For any production system you should have 1 Gigabyte or 2 Gigabytes of RAM at a minimum and more free hard space. Usually anywhere from 50-100 Gigabytes of free space is enough for basic Windows Server installs. The amount of RAM and disk space you require will ultimately be determined by what you are planning to use the server for.
In this demonstration, Windows Server 2012 R2 standard edition will be installed to a virtual machine running on vSphere. This particular virtual machine is configured to use the EFI firmware rather than the BIOS firmware. EFI is a newer boot environment designed for 64bit systems.
1) Once the DVD containing the install media is in the optical drive, in this case the install media is an ISO file and has been mounted to the virtual machine, the next step is to make sure that the computer is configured to boot from that install media. In vSphere this is done by selecting the VM menu and then selecting edit settings. Once the settings are open, select the tab options and then select “Boot Options”. On this screen, tick the option “The next time the virtual machine boots, force entry into the EFI setup screen”.
2) Once the virtual machine starts up it will go straight into the EDI boot screen. To make sure the system boots from the ISO mounted to the optical drive, select the option “Boot Manager” and then select the option for the virtual CDROM drive.
3) If an operating system already exists on the hard disk you will get a message saying “Press any key to boot from CD or DVD”. Because the EFI system is being used, this may incorrectly detect any operating system on the drive when none is installed. If you get this message, press any key to start the setup process, otherwise the computer will attempt to boot off the first hard disk in the system.
4) The computer will load Windows PE from the optical drive into memory. Once this has been loaded it will be run automatically and then the setup will run from the DVD.
5) The first screen of the setup will ask which language, time and currency format and keyboard you would like to use.
6) On the next screen you will need to press the “install now” option to start the Windows Server install. There is also an option on this screen to “Repair your computer”. If the computer experiences problems booting, select this option and you may be able to fix these problems.
7) The next screen will ask for a product key. The product key entered in here will determine which edition of Windows Server 2012 R2 will be installed. The DVD will need to contain this edition of Windows Server 2012 R2 in order to perform the install. If the DVD does not contain this edition, setup will inform you and the install will not be able to continue.
8) The next screen will ask which edition you want to install from the DVD and if it is the core or full edition of Windows.
9) The next screen will ask if you accept the license terms. Once you have read the license terms, tick the tickbox “I accept the license terms” and move on in the wizard.
10) The next screen asks if an upgrade or clean install is being performed. If you wish to perform an in-place upgrade, setup must be run from the operating system that you want to perform the upgrade from. In this case, a new install of Windows Server 2012 R2 is going to be performed so the second option “Custom: Install Windows only (advanced)” is selected.
11) On the next screen you can create partitions to install Windows on. Your drive should appear here. If it does not you will need to select the option “Load driver” and load additional device drivers into the system. This is common with hard disks that have been combined together using systems like RAID. In most cases you will select the option for unallocated space and let Windows create the required partitions. If you want to, you can create the partitions manually.
12) Setup will now install Windows to the drive. The process generally takes about half an hour to complete. Once complete the system will reboot and Windows will start for the first time. During the first boot, a number of performance tests will be run which will determine how Windows will be configured and what features are available.
13) Once the system has booted for the first time, Windows will prompt for an administrator password and finalize the system settings. Once done, you are free to login for the first time. The first login will take a bit longer than future logins because Windows needs to create a profile for that user on the system.
14) Once logged in Server Manager will load automatically. You may also get prompts for the network cards on the system. These prompts will configure the local firewall to allow or block traffic on the network for those network cards.
15) In this case Windows was installed in a virtual machine. To improve the performance of the virtual machine VMWare tools should be installed. To install it, select the menu VM and then select guest followed by “Install/Upgrade VMware Tools”. This will mount the VMWare tools disc image to the optical drive. Once mounted, run the setup and follow the prompts to install VMWare Tools. Once the install is completed, you will need to reboot the server.
“System Requirements and Installation Information for Windows Server 2012 R2” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn303418.aspx
This video will look at installing Windows Server 2012 R2 using the core interface. The video will also look at how to configure the install once complete for remote administration. Server Core only provides a command line interface rather than the full graphical interface, but by the end of this video you will see that you can configure almost any part of Windows Server 2012 R2 Server Core from remote.
Download the PDF handout
This demonstration will look at installing Windows Server 2012 R2 with the core interface on a VMWare virtual machine. The procedure is the same if you plan to install it on a physical computer.
1. To start the install, place the Windows Server 2012 R2 DVD in the optical drive. In the case of a physical computer this will involve placing the media in the computer. In a virtual machine, this will involve editing the optical drive settings and mounting the ISO image of the DVD. If the computer does not boot from the optical drive you will need to change the boot order in the BIOS or press the boot menu key on start up to select the optical drive to boot off. This key will be different depending on the BIOS that is running on that computer, however it is generally displayed on the startup screen when the computer is first switched on.
2. Once the computer has booted, the first screen will ask which language, time and currency format to use and lastly which keyboard to use. You should choose these based on where you live in the world and what language you want to use.
3. The next screen gives you the option to repair the computer. If you have already installed Windows and it is not booting, selecting this option allows you to access a number of tools that may allow you to fix the problem. To start the install of Windows, select the option in the middle of the screen “Install Now”.
4. On the product key screen you will need to enter in a product key. The product key not only provides proof that you have purchased Windows but it also lets the setup know which edition you are allowed to install.
5. This screen allows you to decide which operating system to install. The Server core option will be selected by default. If the edition of Windows indicated by the product key is not on the DVD, setup will indicate that Windows Server cannot be installed with that product key.
6. On the license agreement screen, it is just a matter of ticking the tick box “I accept the license terms” after you have read it and pressing next.
7. On the type of installation that you want to perform you need to select the second option “Custom: Install Windows only (Advanced).” This will perform a clean install of Windows Server. The top option “Update: Install Windows and keep files, settings, and applications” will upgrade an existing edition of Windows. This option will only work if you run setup from the operating system that you want to upgrade.
8. On this screen you select where you want to install Windows from. If you have a drive that has not been partition and formatted it will appear as unallocated spaced. It is a simple matter to select this drive and let setup partition and format the drive as required. If your drive does not appear, you may need to load additional device drivers. This can be done by selecting the option “Load driver”. If you have a drive that already has partitions on it but you want to remove all the data on it, you can select it and select delete to delete the partitions and data. It is generally easier to do this and install onto unallocated space then use existing partitions. This is because the way Windows partitions drives changes a little as time goes on and if it is possible to start a fresh, it is best to do so.
9. Set will start copying files and configuring the drive to boot Windows. Once this is complete, Windows will restart and start detecting device drivers and configuring Windows. Once complete, the system will boot to the login screen.
10. On the login screen, the first login will ask you to enter in a password for the local administrators user account. Once entered, the computer will login and present you with a command prompt. Windows Server Core has been installed and now needs to be configured.
Demonstration installing VMWare Tools
Since this install was performed on a VMWare virtual machine, VMWare tools needs to be installed. This will install additional device drivers and software. The most noticeable missing device driver is the network adapter.
1. To install VMWare Tools, select the menu VM at the top, select guest and then select “Install/Upgrade VMWare Tools”. This will mount the ISO containing VMWare tools to the virtual machines optical drive.
2. To run the setup for VMWare tools, from the command prompt change to your optical drive, the default is D: and then run setup.
3. In this case the defaults were accepted for the install. In most cases the defaults will work fine. Once the install is complete the server will need to be restarted.
Demonstration Configuring using SConfig
Before administration for the server can be performed from remote, some basic settings will need to be configured like basic network settings. This can be done from the command prompt, however Windows provides a script called SConfig which makes the process a lot easier.
1. To run Server Configuration, to perform basic configuration of the server, run the command “SConfig”.
2. Once Server Configuration is running, it is just a matter of selecting the option you want and entering the details. If you change the computer name you will need to restart the server in order for the change to take effect. SConfig currently does not have the option to configure an IPv6 address. If you have the computer name, it is a good idea to restart the server before adding it to the domain.
3. SConfig also allows you to restart the server. So if you have made a change that allows the server to be restarted, select the option 13 to restart the computer.
Demonstration configuring IPv6
1. Before the IPv6 configuration can be performed using NetSH, the interface number must first be found. This can be done with the command “NetSH interface IPv6 show interface”
2. Once you have the index of the network adapter the IP Address for the network adapter can be configured with the following command “NetSH Interface IPv6 Set Address interface=12 address=fd:0:0:2::3” changing the index number and IP Address as required.
3. To configure a DNS server run the command “NetSH Interface IPv6 Add DNSServers 12 fd:0:0:2::2 index=1”. In this example the 12 is the index number of your network adapter and you need to change this as required. The IPv6 address of fd:0:0:2::2 in this case is NYDC1. You need to change this to the IP Address of your DNS server. Index=1 is the DNS server that your want to add. For example, if you wanted to add a second DNS server you would need to run the command a second time with index=2
4. To add a default gateway run the command “NetSH interface IPv6 add route ::/0 12 fd:0:0:2::1”. In this example, change 12 to the network adapter index that you want to configure the default gateway on. The IP Address fd:0:0:2::1 needs to be changed to the IP Address of the gateway on your network. The “::/0” in the command states that this is the default route to be used when no match for routes can be found.
Demonstration opening a new command prompt
1. If you close the running command prompt and need to open it again, press ctrl+atl+del and then select the option “Task Manager”.
2. Once task manager has opened, select the option at the bottom more details.
3. From the file menu, select the option “Run new task”.
4. In the Create New Task Window, enter in CMD.
Demonstration configuring server core for remote administration
1. To configure a server core for remote administration, open Server Manager.
2. From server manager, right click “All Servers” and select “Add Servers”.
3. From the Add Servers screen, find and add the Server Core install.
Demonstration changing firewall rules from remote
In order to configure certain options from remote using management tools some firewall rules need to be enabled. This can be done from remote using PowerShell.
1. In Server Manager, find the server that you want to make changes to the firewall rules on, right click it and select the option “Windows PowerShell”. This will run Windows PowerShell on the remote computer.
2. To make changes to the Firewall to allow the following remote administration to run the following commands depending on what remote management that you want to allow.
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group ”Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group ”Remote Event Log Management” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Remote administration” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Remote Event Log Management” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Remote Service Management” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “File and Printer Sharing” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Remote Scheduled Tasks Management” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Remote Volume Management” new enable=yes
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Windows Firewall Remote Management” new enable=yes
Reliability and performance
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “Performance Logs and Alerts” new enable=yes
“NetSH AdvFirewall Firewall set rule group “File and Printing Sharing” new enable=yes
Demonstration of corefig
If you want a graphical way of performing some of the basic administration on Server Core, there is free software called Corefig which provides a basic graphical interface and the ability to perform basic server core configurations.
1. Navigate to the web page http://corefig.codeplex.com/
2. Select the download option. The downloads are in ISO and zip format. Corefig does not need to be installed. If you are using virtual machines, it is often easier to download the ISO version and mount it to the optical drive in the virtual machine. Otherwise, download the zip and extract the files to where you want to use them including network locations.
3. To run Corefig, run the command “Start_Corefig.wsf” once running, it is just a matter of selecting the option you want. The option to promote the server to a Domain Controller is not available in Windows Server 2012 but does work in Windows Server 2008. Also, IPv6 configuration is not supported so it will need to be done from the command line.
“Installing Windows Server 2012 in Core Mode - Step by Step - Part II” http://blogs.technet.com/b/tommypatterson/archive/2012/11/29/installing-windows-server-2012-in-core-mode-step-by-step-part-ii.aspx
“IPv6 configuration items” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc783049(v=ws.10).aspx
“How to Enable Remote Administration of Server Core via MMC using NETSH” http://blogs.technet.com/b/askds/archive/2008/06/05/how-to-enable-remote-administration-of-server-core-via-mmc-using-netsh.aspx
This video looks at some of the planning required for upgrading to Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2. Different editions support different features, for this reason when you upgrade an operating system some features may no longer be available. This video also looks at some of the upgrade paths that are available.
Download the PDF handout
An In-Place upgrade is when the upgrade is performed on an operating system and the upgrade process keeps all the settings, documents and applications. If the In-Place upgrade goes well, the computer should run much the same as the old computer, but be running a different operating system. It is important to check that when you purchase an upgrade that the operating system supports an in-place upgrade. In some cases, an upgrade is available from one operating system but an in-place upgrade is not. For example, an in-place upgrade is not available when the original operating system is running 32-bit and the upgrade version is 64-bit. When this occurs, you need to perform a clean install of Windows Server and then migrate the document and settings to the new install. The down side with an in-place upgrade is that any existing problems with the operating system are carried over to the new operating system.
In-Place Vs Migration
A migration is when the documents and settings are manually copied over and the applications are re-installed. Migration tools have existed in previous versions of Windows Server, however in Windows Server 2012 these migration tools have been improved. A migration also allows individual items to be migrated. For example, a single role can be migrated to any server. The advantage of a migration is that in some cases particular problems may be left behind and not migrated. For example, if the user profile on the server is causing performance problems on the server, migrating only the role to another server means the old profile is left behind and thus so is the problem.
In-Place Upgrade Not Supported
In order to perform an in-place upgrade you must be running the same architecture. Windows Server 2008 does not come in an Itanium or 32bit version so therefore no upgrade path is available. The version of Windows must be one that was released to manufacture and thus pre-releases, evaluations or preview editions are not supported. Also, it must be running the same interface, e.g. core or full. However the interface can be changed after the in-place upgrade. Also the upgrade must be in the same language. If you are upgrading to Windows Server 2012 you will need to be running Windows Server 2008 or above. If you are upgrading to Windows Server 2012 R2, you will need to be running Windows Server 2008 R2 or above.
Upgrade paths from Windows 2008/R2
The editions names used in Windows Server 2008 in some cases are different from that used in Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2. If you are running the Standard or Enterprise editions of Window Server 2008, this can be upgraded to the Standard or Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2012. Datacenter is available in Windows Server 2008 and 2012 so it is a straight upgrade. Web server does not exist on Windows Server 2012 so this needs to upgraded to Windows server 2012 standard. Windows Server 2008 requires service pack 2 to be installed before the upgrade and Windows Server 2008 R2 requires service pack 1 to be installed before the upgrade.
Upgrade paths to Windows Server 2012 R2
Upgrade paths to Windows Server 2012 R2 are the same as before, except the operating system must be running Windows Server 2008 R2 with service pack 1 installed. In other words, upgrades to Windows Server 2012 R2 are not supported on Windows Server 2008 or earlier.
Upgrade Path Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2012 R2
There are only two in-place upgrades that are supported. These are standard to standard or datacenter and datacenter to datacenter. Upgrades from Essentials and Foundation are not supported.
Features Removed In Windows Server 2012
The following features have been removed. In most cases, other software or features make up for the feature being removed.
No support for XDDM graphics driver: This is the graphics device driver format that was first release in Windows 98. In Windows Vista a new graphics device driver format called WDDM was released. Windows Server 2012 does not provide support for XDDM drivers, however does come with a basic WDDM device driver that support basic VGA graphics cards.
No native VGA support: There is no longer any direct VGA support in Windows Server. For old video cards, the WDDM basic device driver should work fine.
Storage Explorer snap-in for MMC: Has been removed, however functionality is available in Server Manager.
Storage Manager for SANs snap-in for MMC: Has been removed, however functionality is available in Server Manager.
Support for Token Ring Networks: An old network system. Ethernet is now the market leader.
NetDMA: Removed but functionality available in other features of the OS.
Support for Static VMA: Removed but functionality available in other features of the OS.
VM Chimney in Hyper-V: Removed but functionality available in other features of the OS.
OCList: Shows a list of roles or features. Use DISM instead.
ServerMangerCMD: Use PowerShell instead.
Active Directory Federation Services: Windows Server 2012 comes with 2.1 of ADFS. Window Server 2008 was shipped with version 1, however version 2 could be installed as an optional download. There is no upgrade path from 1.0 to 2.0. 2.0 to 2.1 is supported, however do your research first to see what is involved as some of the feature sets between the versions have changed.
ADFS Resource groups: These groups do not exist in ADFS 2.1 and thus before the upgrade they need to be removed.
NT Token Mode: This is an authentication system used with Windows NT and is no longer supported in ADFS.
AD LDS as an authentication store: AD FDS no longer supports AD LDS as an authentication store. You will instead need to use Active Directory.
Microsoft SQL Server prior to 7.0: These versions are not supported and you will need to upgrade.
32-bit cluster resource DLL’s: There are 64bit versions of these DLL’s. If you have software that uses 32-bit DLL’s it will need to be upgraded to a version that uses 64-bit DLL’s.
Windows Help Executable (WinHlp32.exe): This is an optional download from the Microsoft web site that allows old help files to be read. It is no longer available, however there are still downloads available for it for Windows 8.
Features Removed in Window Server 2012 R2
System Image Backup: This has been removed, use file history instead or a different backup system.
Recovery disk creation to CD/DVD: This can no longer be performed to optical, however USB is still supported.
Slmgr.vbs: This script has had the switches /stao and /ctao removed.
Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications: This software allows UNIX based software to be run on Windows. Microsoft recommends porting the software to Windows or using a different operating system to run it.
Winsock Direct replaced by Network Direct: This is software that allows memory to be accessed over the network. Generally would be used by high availability software. You only need to worry about this if you are a programmer or you have software that was written to use Winsock Direct.
Support for NDIS 6 and above: Previous NDIS standards before this is are no longer supported. If you are using old device drivers that NDIS this may be a concern.
AD FS v1 Web Agent: Listed on the Microsoft web site as not being available, however this could not be confirmed.
Points to consider
Before starting an In-Place upgrade there are some points to consider. Doing these will maximize the chances of your upgrade succeeding. Check your hardware to make sure it is compatible. Ensure there is enough free hard disk space, running out of hard disk space during the upgrade can cause the upgrade to fail. Check to make sure that any applications that are running on the operating system are compatible with the new operating system. Disable anti-virus software as this can affect the upgrade process. Unplug any management cables for any connected UPS devices. Setup will attempt to detect any devices during the install process and UPS devices can sometimes cause problems in the upgrade process. Before you start the upgrade make sure that you perform a full backup. If you have not logged into the new operating system, you can reverse the upgrade process. However once you have logged in for the first time, the only way that you can get back to the previous operating system is to restore the operating system from a backup.
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 2, 12-14
“Upgrade Options for Windows Server 2012 R2” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn303416.aspx
“Retiring Oclist.exe” http://blogs.technet.com/b/server_core/archive/2010/10/28/retiring-oclist-exe.aspx
“Features Removed or Deprecated in Windows Server 2012 R2” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn303411.aspx
“Features Removed or Deprecated in Windows Server 2012” http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh831568.aspx
“Windows 2000 Display Driver Model (XDDM) Design Guide” http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/ff570584(v=vs.85).aspx
“Windows Display Driver Model” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Display_Driver_Model
“Server Manager Command-line Tools” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc731774.aspx
“FAQ on ADFS - Part 1” http://blogs.technet.com/b/askpfeplat/archive/2013/07/22/faq-on-adfs-part-1.aspx
“Microsoft SQL Server” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SQL_Server
“I cannot open Help that was created in the Windows Help format (WinHlp32.exe)” http://support.microsoft.com/kb/917607
“Microsoft Compiled HTML Help” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Compiled_HTML_Help
“Windows Services for UNIX” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Services_for_UNIX#Subsystem_for_UNIX-based_Applications_.28SUA.29
“Upgrading to Windows Server 2012 – Part 1” http://blogs.technet.com/b/askcore/archive/2012/10/23/upgrading-to-windows-server-2012-part-1.aspx
This video will perform an in-place upgrade of Windows Server 2012 Domain Controller to Windows Server 2012 R2. An in-place upgrade will keep the existing documents and settings on the server. Windows Server 2012 R2 is consider an incremental upgrade as it adds features to the operating system rather than make major changes to the operating system.
Download the PDF handout
Before you deploy your first Windows Server 2012 R2 Domain Controller, either upgrading an existing Domain Controller or promoting an existing Windows Server 2012 R2 Domain Controller, there are a few requirements that need to be met before the first Domain Controller is deployed.
1) Before installing the first Windows Server 2012 R2 Domain Controller, all existing Domain Controllers need to be upgraded to Windows Server 2003 or above.
2) ADPrep /ForestPrep needs to be run once in the forest. ADPrep can be found on the Windows Server 2012 R2 DVD. It only needs to be run once before the first Windows Server 2012 R2 Domain Controller is deployed. You should use the latest DVD that you have to make sure that your schema is the most recently update as possible.
3) ADPrep /DomainPrep needs to be run in each domain that you plan to deploy Windows Server 2012 R2 Domain Controllers. It only needs to be run once.
If you want to try Windows Server 2012 R2, you can add it at any time to the domain as a member server. You do not need to run ADPrep before adding the Windows Server 2012 R2. This is only required if the server is a Domain Controller or being promoted to a Domain Controller.
In this demonstration NYDC1, which is running Windows Server 2012, will be upgraded to Windows Server 2012 R2.
1) In order to perform an in-place upgrade, the operating system that you want to upgrade needs to be booted. When this is booted the setup program needs to be run from the DVD to start the upgrade process.
2) Once the setup has started, select the option install now.
3) Since an operating system is already loaded, setup has access to the networking on the operating system and thus can download updates before the install starts. It is a good idea to download updates before the install as this may help the upgrade run smoother.
4) The next screen will ask for your product key. The product key will determine which edition of Windows will be installed.
5) The next screen will ask which edition for Windows Server you will install. Generally the option here will be server core and GUI. The particular edition that will show is the editions on the DVD that are compatible with the product key that you entered.
6) This screen will ask you to accept the license agreement. It is just a matter of ticking the tick box and moving on.
7) On the “what type of installation do you want”, the top option “Upgrade: Install Windows and keep files, settings and applications” needs to be selected. This will upgrade the existing operating system. The second option “custom: install Windows only (advanced)” will install a fresh copy of Windows and thus any programs, documents or settings will not be kept.
8) Setup will perform a compatibility check of the system. This will check for any known problems that may cause problems with the upgrade. For example, if there is not enough memory in the computer this will be reported. However, 3rd party software is not tested, so you will need to check with your vendor if this software is compatible.
ADPrep is found on the setup DVD in the folder source\ADPrep\ADPrep.exe
Run ADPrep /ForestPrep once in the forest.
Run ADPrep /DomainPrep once in each domain.
Once complete, you can run the command RepAdmin /SyncAll /APeD
This command will force a sync to all the other Domain Controllers in the domain. It is a good idea to wait for a domain sync after running ADPrep if you are planning to deploy a Domain Controller shortly after running ADPrep
“Install and Deploy Windows Server 2012” http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh831620.aspx
“System Requirements and Installation Information for Windows Server 2012 R2 Preview” http://technet.microsoft.com/en-US/library/dn303418.aspx
When installing roles or features using Server Manager, there is an option to export these settings to a file. Using this file, you can install the same roles and features on another server. This video looks at how to make best use of that feature.
Download the PDF handout
Exporting Server Manager Configuration
When installing any role or feature using Server Manager, at the end of the wizard is the option to export the settings to an XML file. This XML file when exported can be read in by another server and thus be used to install the same roles and features on that server. This will only install the roles or features, it does not configure them. For example, there are a number of roles that require post configuration wizards to be run. For example, Active Directory Domain Services, Active Directory Federation Servers and DHCP all have post configurations that need to be performed. So once the role or feature is installed, it is up to the administrator to perform any post configuration required. If you are installing only a simple role, it probably is not necessary to export the settings to repeat the install. If however, you are installing roles like IIS which has a lot of components in it, it may be worth the administrator’s time to export the settings for this install, especially if they need to perform the install on multiple servers.
Demonstration capturing settings
It is important to remember that exporting the settings will only export the options that were ticked during the install. If an option is already installed, it will not be added to the settings file. For this reason, it is recommended that you use a server that has not been configured yet. This will allow you to select all roles and features required. At the end of the wizard you will have the option to export the settings before installing so you can export the settings and then cancel the wizard, meaning no changes will be made to the server.
1. To export the settings, start server manager and select the option add/role or feature.
2. It is just a matter of selecting the options in the install wizard. In this case the local server was chosen; however, you are free to select any server that you wish.
3. When you get to the confirm installation selections screen, select the option “Export configuration settings” at the bottom of the screen. This option will export the settings to a file. Once this is done, you have the option “press install” to install the roles or features or you can cancel the wizard.
4. When hovering your cursor over the option “Export configuration settings” this will show you the command that needs to be run to use the settings file to install the roles and features on another server. This command is “Install-WindowsFeature –ConfigurationFilePath FILENAME”.
Demonstration using a settings file
1. Commands need to be run from PowerShell. In order to open PowerShell, run PowerShell from the command prompt.
2. On the server that you want to install the roles or features using the settings file, run the command “Install-WindowsFeature –ConfigurationFilePath FILENAME”. In this example the command Install-“WindowsFeature –ConfigurationFilePath e:\IISInstall.xml”
3. Once the command has finished running, it will inform you if you need to perform a reboot in order to complete the install.
“Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 33 - 34